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12.15.21 – Join us in getting this VENTILATOR FOIA out to all Illinois hospitals. Here is a sample you can use, or feel free to edit it with any additional information.


Hospital Tracker:

Mailing Labels


*To save time, use this list in your address info of the FOIA.

*Save stamps by calling hospital directly for the right point of contact’s email address. If you go this route, the person’s email address will be inserted under the address in the FOIA.


11.9.2021: Helping hands needed for mailing out C40 FOIA Requests

Please mail a copy of each of these *16* FOIA requests. Once you get a reply per FOIA we ask that you send a copy of the original request along with the reply to:


Can you gather as many BRAVE group members as you can muster? We need 4 FOIAs and 1 request for an inquiry sent out on behalf of Chicago Police officers.

The Constitution of the United States

List of the 27 Constitutional Amendments

The following is a list of the 27 Constitutional Amendments. 25 of these constitutional amendments are currently active. The two amendments of the constitution that are inactive are the 18th Amendment (Prohibition) and the 21st Amendment (Repeal of Prohibition).

Table of Contents

The First 10 Amendments to the Constitution

The first 10 of these amendments are known as the Bill of Rights. These were added in 1791 and are about personal rights.

There have been proposed over 11,000 additional constitutional amendments, with approximately 200 proposed for the amendment process a year. For a proposed constitutional amendment to be passed is a very complicated process.

What Are The First 27 Amendments Of The Constitution?

The 1st amendment:

The 1st amendment is about Freedom of speech. The notion that the government will not interfere with the ability of the people, the press, or religious groups to express their views or to protest in favor of them.

The 2nd amendment:

The 2nd amendment is about the right to bear arms. In the modern world, the continued right to own firearms and protect property according to the law.

The 3rd amendment:

The 3rd amendment is a law stating that citizens do not have to house soldiers, whether in wartime or peacetime if they do not consent to do so.

The 4th amendment:

The 4th amendment is about the right of the people of the United States to feel secure in their homes, and of possessions, without fear of “unreasonable searches and seizures”. This continues to relate to modern law in the need for a warrant to search property.

The 5th amendment:

The 5th amendment is commonly known as the double jeopardy law. Those tried and acquitted for a crime cannot be tried again for that same crime. Also, the accused cannot be asked to be a witness against themselves.

The 6th amendment:

The 6th amendment is about the right of all citizens of the United States to a speed and fair public trial. This also means a neutral jury and the right to a defense counsel and witnesses in their favor.

It also hints at the concept of innocent until proven guilty.

The 7th amendment:

The 7th amendment gives the right for any claimant to take a matter to court and trial by jury when the value in question exceeds $20.

The 8th amendment:

The 8th amendment is a ban on extreme punishments for crimes, with a focus on those “cruel and unusual” and on excessive fines or bail.

The 9th amendment:

The 9th amendment gives the clarification that US citizens have far more rights than those currently listed and that their absence doesn’t diminish their importance.

The 10th amendment:

The 10th amendment is an attempt to separate Federal and State law, where the Federal government only has the powers assigned to it via the United States Constitution. The states have power over everything else.

The 11th amendment:

The 11th amendment is the notion that the right for citizens to sue a State only applies to those that are resident in that state. In other words, Texans can’t sue the State of New Mexico.

The 12th amendment:

The 12th amendment is a complex amendment that lays out all the laws for how Presidents and Vice Presidents progressed through the nomination and election process. It goes into who is allowed to vote and qualified electors and delegates. Also the requirements for becoming president.

The 13th amendment:

The 13th amendment is about the abolition of slavery. The promise that slavery, or “involuntary servitude”, would exist no longer within the United States. The exception here being on the conviction of a crime.

The 14th amendment:

The 14th amendment is the assertion that all those born or naturalized within the United States are citizens of the United States. Furthermore, the promise that no State will enforce any law that will damage these privileges in any way. This is also known as the Equal Protection Clause.

The 15th amendment:

The 15th amendment is the notion that any citizen of the United States has the right to vote, regardless of their race and color of their skin. This constitutional amendment also mentions those with a “previous condition of servitude”, which therefore gives the right to former slaves.

The 16th amendment:

The 16th amendment is a law that allowed Congress to start collecting income tax, with the promise that this would not be based on the state’s population.

The 17th amendment:

The 17th amendment lays out the terms for electing Senators. This gave power to the people of the US to choose their representatives and laid out the terms of office.

The 18th amendment:

The 18th amendment is also known as the Prohibition law. This prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of “intoxicating liquors”. This essentially meant a ban on alcohol and led to the Prohibition Era of bootleg alcohol sales and consumption.

The 19th amendment:

The 19th amendment is about the right for any citizen of the United States to vote, regardless of their biological sex. Essentially, this was the moment women joined male citizens and were given the right to vote in the United States.

The 20th amendment:

The 20th amendment is the decision that all Presidential terms, and those of Vice Presidents, will end at noon (12:00) on the twentieth of January. In addition to this, it was decided that the date of the start of a term in the Senate would move to January 3rd.

The 21st amendment:

The 21st amendment is the motion to repeal the 18th amendment, the Prohibition Law, and allow for the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol. Ratified in 1933 due to the inability to enforce the law. Instead, individual states gained the right to police alcohol-related laws themselves.

The 22nd amendment:

The 22nd amendment is the notion that no President should be eligible for election into the office for more than two terms. Furthermore, anyone that is promoted to President for two years or more of a term cannot be elected for more than one additional term. The amendment was proposed in 1947, following FDR’s term from 1933 to 1945.

The 23rd amendment:

The 23rd amendment ensures that Washington, D.C. had electors in the Electoral College, but only as many as the state with the lowest number. This would ensure that voters there had better representation in future elections.

The 24th amendment:

The 24th amendment is about the right of any citizen of the United States to vote for candidates in any election for Presidential, Senate, or Congress representatives even if they have missed a tax payment. This could mean a poll tax payment or any other tax.

The 25th amendment:

The 25th amendment says that the Vice President will take the office and take over the role of President if the President is removed from office, resigns, or dies. This was proposed in 1965 after Lyndon Johnson took over the Presidency following the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

The 26th amendment:

The 26th amendment is about the right of all American citizens over the age of 18 to be able to vote. Before this, the voting age had been 20. There is also mention of being able to do so without fear of having their vote denied because of their age.

The 27th amendment:

The 27th amendment is the proposal that any changes to the salary of those in Congress should not take effect until the next election of representatives. Unsurprisingly, given the nature of this bill, this took a long time to reach ratification. It was proposed in 1789 and ratified in 1992.

27 Amendments of Constitution

The above 27 amendments are those amendments that have made it part of the US Constitution. There are approximately 10,000 amendments that have been rejected and never ratified.

Overview Of US Bill Of Rights

Table of Contents

What is the Bill of Rights?

The United States Bill of Rights contains the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. They were ratified by the required number of states on December 15th, 1791. This ratification was a major feat.

The Bill of Rights was crafted in response to criticism of the newly adopted original Constitution, which had replaced the earlier Articles of Confederation. This is unlike the UK Bill of Rights and the Magna Carta.

These ten amendments that make up the Bill of RIghts clarify some freedoms, human rights and set out citizens’ civil liberty. This was a major reason for the American Revolution. In many cases, when Americans reference their “freedoms” or “liberties,” they are referencing a principle laid out in one or more of these ten amendments to the US Constitution.

Let’s take a look at each one:

First Amendment

The First Amendment of the Bill of Rights allows for freedom of speech and freedom of the pressfreedom of religion, and people’s right to protest the government peacefully. In the United States, people can criticize the government, say what they like, and practice whatever religion they like. The government also can not legally favor one religion over the other.

Some exceptions to this freedom, such as using “fighting words” to threaten people, are illegal. This may be seen as a public danger.

Second Amendment

The Second Amendment protects the right of the people to “keep and bear arms.” This right is taken from older English common law. Controversy over this amendment today includes the question of whether or not gun ownership is connected to state militia service and to what degree – if at all – gun control laws are covered in the constitution.

Third Amendment

The Third Amendment prevents the government from lodging troops in private residences. This applies only during peacetime – in wartime, specific laws must be enacted to prevent troops’ lodging.

The Third Amendment can be thought of as a direct response to the Quartering Acts passed by the British Parliament in the 1760s and 1770s, one of the Thirteen Colonies’ major grievances.

In modern times, this doesn’t seem as relevant as other amendments to the constitution.

Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment protects against an unreasonable search and seizure. Police can’t simply enter a home and investigate without “probable cause.” This amendment is often thought to have come from the US Constitution itself.

Fifth Amendment

The Fifth Amendment enumerates certain legal rights, such as the right to be tried before a court and grand jury, the right not to be tried for the same crime twice (“double jeopardy”), and the right to avoid self-incrimination.

It also describes that all citizens must go through “due process of law” before being legally punished. This could include the necessity of an impartial jury when facing a jury trial.

You’ve probably heard someone say they “plead the Fifth” – this refers to the liberty of a person not to be a “witness against himself.”

The famous Miranda warning (“you have the right to remain silent,” etc.) also extends from this right, though it wasn’t established until 1966 after a Supreme Court case (Miranda v. Arizona).

Sixth Amendment

Like the 5th Amendment, the Sixth Amendment of the Bill of Rights also relates to the judicial process. Namely, amendment VI guarantees the right to a speedy and public court trial, performed in the district where the alleged crime was committed, and for a person to be told what it is they’re being charged with.

It also guarantees the right to a lawyer (“Assistance of Counsel”), even for those who cannot afford one: this is where the idea of “public defenders” comes from.

Seventh Amendment

The Seventh Amendment is about legal suits for a citizen. For example, if someone damaged your property and you wanted reimbursement – specifically for an amount more than $20 – the Seventh Amendment gives you the right to take this issue before a jury to be settled and, if a specific reimbursement amount is decided upon, enforced.

Eighth Amendment

The Eighth Amendment protects people against prohibitive bail, fines, as well as “cruel and unusual punishment.” Today, it is most often brought up about the death penalty.

Ninth Amendment

The Ninth Amendment states that there are other universal rights not protected in the Bill of Rights and that they should not be supposed not to exist just because they’re not mentioned. James Madison pushed for this Amendment to be introduced so that people would not think all rights of US citizens were written in the Bill of Rights.

Tenth Amendment

The Tenth Amendment states that any rights that are not reserved for the central government are reserved to the individual states that make up the Union, or “to the people.” This was an attempt to define the differences between the state government’s power and the federal government‘s power and included especially to satisfy anti-federalists.

Read the full text of the Bill of Rights.

Discover the full list of Constitutional Amendments – even those not included in the Bill of Rights.

History of the US Bill of Rights and whether it is part of the constitution.

Download free, printable PDF of the Bill of Rights

A more in-depth look at the amendments to the US Constitution:

First Amendment

Second Amendment

Third Amendment

Fourth Amendment

Fifth Amendment

Sixth Amendment

Seventh Amendment

Eighth Amendment

Ninth Amendment

Tenth Amendment

Eleventh Amendment

Twelfth Amendment

Thirteenth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

Fifteenth Amendment

Sixteenth Amendment

Seventeenth Amendment

Eighteenth Amendment

Nineteenth Amendment

Twentieth Amendment

Twenty-First Amendment

Twenty-Second Amendment

Twenty Third Amendment

Twenty Fourth Amendment

Twenty-Fifth Amendment

Twenty-Sixth Amendment

Twenty Seventh Amendment

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